Forest plot of comparison: 1 Tramadol versus placebo, outcome: 1.1 Dropout due to adverse events.

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Forest plot of comparison: 1 Tramadol versus placebo, outcome: 1.2 Constipation.

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Forest plot of comparison: 1 Tramadol versus placebo, outcome: 1.3 Nausea.

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Forest plot of comparison: 1 Tramadol versus placebo, outcome: 1.4 Dizziness.

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Forest plot of comparison: 1 Tramadol versus placebo, outcome: 1.5 Somnolence.

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