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64 McDonald AD, Armstrong BG, Sloan M. Cigarette, alcohol, and coffee consumption and prematurity. Am J Public Health 1992;82:87-90.
65 Shu XO, Hatch MC, Mills J, Clemens J, Susser M. Maternal smoking, alcohol drinking, caffeine consumption, and fetal growth: results from a prospective study. Epidemiology 1995;6:115-120.
66 Bonati M, Fellin G. Changes in smoking and drinking behaviour before and during pregnancy in Italian mothers: implications for public health intervention. ICGDUP (Italian Collaborative Group on Drug Use in Pregnancy). Int J Epidemiol 1991;20:927-932.
67 Padmanabhan R, Pallot DJ. Aspirin-alcohol interaction in the production of cleft palate and limb malformations in the TO mouse. Teratology 1995;51:404-417.
68 Windham GC, Fenster L, Swan SH. Moderate maternal and paternal alcohol consumption and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Epidemiology 1992;3:364-370.
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70 Lundsberg LS, Bracken MB, Saftlas AF. Low-to-moderate gestational alcohol use and intrauterine growth retardation, low birthweight, and preterm delivery. Ann Epidemiol 1997;7:498-508.
71 Little RE, MacGillivray I. Abstinence from alcohol before pregnancy and reproductive outcome. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 1995;9:105-108.
72 Bell R, Lumley J. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and fetal outcome in Victoria, 1985. Community Health Stud 1989;13:484-491.
73 Weinberg CR, Umbach DM, Greenland S. When will nondifferential misclassification of an exposure preserve the direction of a trend? Am J Epidemiol 1994;140:565-571.
74 Mitchell JA. Effects of alcohol on blastocyst implantation and fecundity in the rat. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1994;18:29-34.
75 Leach RE, Stachecki JJ, Armant DR. Development of in vitro fertilized mouse embryos exposed to ethanol during the preimplantation period: accelerated embryogenesis at subtoxic levels. Teratology 1993;47:57-64.
76 Fisher SE, Barnicle MA, Steis B, Holzman I, Van Thiel DH. Acute ethanol exposure and protein synthesis in the fetal rat. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1980;4:214
77 Olsen J, Frische G, Kirchheiner H, Poulsen AO. Alkoholvaner blandt gravide i Odense 1985-1986. Ugeskr Læger 1987;149:1420-1422.
78 Rubin DH, Krasilnikoff PA, Leventhal JM, Berget A, Weil B. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy by Danish women and their spouses a potential source of fetal morbidity. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 1988;14:405-417.
79 Olsen J. Alkohol og graviditet. Månedsskr Prakt Lægegern 1993;71:817-822.
80 Olsen J, Frische G, Poulsen AO, Kirchheiner H. Changing smoking, drinking, and eating behaviour among pregnant women in Denmark. Evaluation of a health campaign in a local region. Scand J Soc Med 1989;17:277-280.
81 Gladstone J, Levy M, Nulman I, Koren G. Characteristics of pregnant women who engage in binge alcohol consumption. Can Med Assoc J 1997;156:789-794.
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83 Ihlen BM, Amundsen A, Tronnes L. Reduced alcohol use in pregnancy and changed attitudes in the population. Addiction 1993;88:389-394.
84 Serdula M, Williamson DF, Kendrick JS, Anda RF, Byers T. Trends in alcohol consumption by pregnant women. 1985 through 1988. JAMA 1991;265:876-879.
85 Ebrahim SH, Luman ET, Floyd RL, Murphy CC, Bennett EM, Boyle CA. Alcohol consumption by pregnant women in the United States during 1988-1995. Obstet Gynecol 1998;92:187-192.
86 Kapamadzija A, Horvat K. Alkohol u trudnoci. Med Pregl 1991;44:41-44.
87 Streissguth AP, Darby BL, Barr HM, Smith JR, Martin DC. Comparison of drinking and smoking patterns during pregnancy over a six-year interval. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1983;145:716-724.
88 Rostand A, Kaminski M, Lelong N, et al. Alcohol use in pregnancy, craniofacial features, and fetal growth. J Epidemiol Community Health 1990;44:302-306.
89 Ihlen BM, Amundsen A, Sande HA, Daae L. Changes in the use of intoxicants after onset of pregnancy. Br J Addict 1990;85:1627-1631.
90 Barrison IG, Wright JT, Murray-Lyon IM. The hazards of moderate drinking during pregnancy. Alcohol Alcohol 1981;16:188-199.
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92 Little RE. Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy: a review. In: Abel EL, ed. Fetal alcohol syndrome, vol. II: human studies. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1982;47-64.
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95 Passaro KT, Little RE, Savitz DA, Noss J. The effect of maternal drinking before conception and in early pregnancy on infant birthweight. The ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. Epidemiology 1996;7:377-383.
96 Meberg A, Halvorsen B, Holter B, et al. Moderate alcohol consumption need for intervention programs in pregnancy? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1986;65:861-864.
97 Little RE, Streissguth AP. Drinking during pregnancy in alcoholic women. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1978;2:179 183.
98 Rosett HL, Weiner L, Zuckerman B, McKinlay S, Edelin KC. Reduction of alcohol consumption during pregnancy with benefits to the newborn. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1980;4:178-184.
99 Olegard R, Sabel KG, Aronsson M, et al. Effects on the child of alcohol abuse during pregnancy. Retrospective and prospective studies. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 1979;275:112-121.
100 Lee NK, Oei TP. The importance of alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy in the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption. J Subst Abuse 1993;5:379-390.
101 Jensen TK, Hjøllund NHI, Henriksen TB, et al. Does moderate alcohol consumption affect fertility? Follow up study among couples planning first pregnancy. BMJ 1998;317:505-510.
102 Olsen J, Bolumar F, Boldsen J, Bisanti L. Does moderate alcohol intake reduce fecundability? A European multicenter study on infertility and subfecundity. European Study Group on Infertility and Subfecundity. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1997;21:206-212.
103 Olsen J, Rachootin P, Schiødt AV, Damsbo N. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption and infertility. Int J Epidemiol 1983;12:179-184.
104 Grodstein F, Goldman MB, Cramer DW. Infertility in women and moderate alcohol use. Am J Public Health 1994;84:1429-1432.
105 Wilsnack SC, Klassen AD, Wilsnack RW. Drinking and reproductive dysfunction among women in a 1981 national survey. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1984;8:451-458.
106 Mello NK, Mendelson JH, Teoh SK. Neuroendocrine consequences of alcohol abuse in women. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1989;562:211-240.
107 Zaadstra BM, Looman CW, te Velde ER, Habbema JD, Karbaat J. Moderate drinking: no impact on female fecundity. Fertil Steril 1994;62:948-954.
108 Spinelli A, Figa Talamanca I, Osborn J. Time to pregnancy and occupation in a group of Italian women. Int J Epidemiol 1997;26:601-609.
109 Becker U, Tønnesen H, Kaas Claesson N, Gluud C. Menstrual disturbances and fertility in chronic alcoholic women. Drug Alcohol Depend 1989;24:75-82.
110 Florack EI, Zielhuis GA, Rolland R. Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and caffeine intake and fecundability. Prev Med 1994;23:175-180.
111 Curtis KM, Savitz DA, Arbuckle TE. Effects of cigarette smoking, caffeine consumption, and alcohol intake on fecundability. Am J Epidemiol 1997;146:32-41.
112 Joesoef MR, Beral V, Aral SO, Rolfs RT, Cramer DW. Fertility and use of cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine. Ann Epidemiol 1993;3:592-594.
113 Abel EL. A surprising effect of paternal alcohol treatment on rat fetuses. Alcohol 1995;12:1-6.
114 Riesenfeld A, Oliva H. The effect of nicotine and alcohol on the fertility and life span of rats. A cytological analysis. Acta Anat Basel 1987;128:45-50.
115 Rasmussen BB, Christensen N. Teratogenic effect of maternal alcohol consumption on the mouse fetus. a histological study. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand A 1980;88:285-289.
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125 Russell M, Skinner JB. Early measures of maternal alcohol misuse as predictors of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1988;12:824-830.
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137 Windham GC, Fenster L, Hopkins B, Swan SH. The association of moderate maternal and paternal alcohol consumption with birthweight and gestational age. Epidemiology 1995;6:591-597.
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140 Wright JT, Waterson EJ, Barrison IG, et al. Alcohol consumption, pregnancy, and low birthweight. Lancet 1983;1:663-665.
141 Kaminski M, Rumeau C, Schwartz D. Alcohol consumption in pregnant women and the outcome of pregnancy. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1978;2:155-163.
142 Kaminski M, Franc M, Lebouvier M, du Mazaubrun C, Rumeau Rouquette C. Moderate alcohol use and pregnancy outcome. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol 1981;3:173-181.
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147 Virji SK. The relationship between alcohol consumption during pregnancy and infant birthweight. An epidemiologic study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1991;70:303-308.
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